Tuesday, September 30, 2008
WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Two hugely popular supplements used to fight arthritis and joint pain, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, do not seem to work any better than placebo to slow the loss of knee cartilage in osteoarthritis, researchers reported on Monday.
But the researchers said some of their findings were confusing and said more study was needed.
"At two years, no treatment showed what we determined to be a clinically important reduction in joint space width loss," said Dr. Allen Sawitzke of the University of Utah School of Medicine, who helped lead the study.
The study, funded by the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine at the National Institutes of Health, confirms other findings showing the supplements have few or no effects.
The trial is called glucosamine/chondroitin arthritis intervention trial or GAIT. Writing in the October issue of Arthritis & Rheumatism, Sawitzke and colleagues said they had trouble interpreting their results because patients who took placebos had a smaller loss of cartilage than they should have.
The original GAIT study results in 2006 found the supplements did not reduce the pain of knee arthritis, except among a small group of patients with moderate to severe pain.
The GAIT researchers continued to watch 572 volunteers for another 18 months and found the supplements did not appear to slow the loss of cartilage, taken either alone or together.
They said arthritis worsened in 24 percent of participants taking both, similar to those taking placebo.
"Research continues to reveal that osteoarthritis, the most common form of arthritis, appears to be the result of an array of factors including age, gender, genetics, obesity, and joint injuries," said Dr. Stephen Katz, director of the NIH's National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases.
"Because osteoarthritis affects nearly 21 million Americans, we are seeking ways to not only treat pain, but also address the structural effects of the condition," he said.
(Reporting by Maggie Fox, editing by Vicki Allen)
Models appear on the catwalk at the end of French fashion house Dior Spring/Summer 2009 women's ready-to-wear fashion show by designer John Galliano in Paris September 29, 2008. REUTERS/Charles Platiau
By James Mackenzie
PARIS (Reuters) - France's ready-to-wear spring and summer shows began in earnest on Monday with Christian Dior's collection, as the world of fashion flew in the face of an increasingly ominous world environment.
Dior's show at the Tuileries gardens marked the start of the main part of the industry showpiece after the annual spring-summer shows began at the weekend with collections from a clutch of younger designers.
"Tribal chic. Studded. Belted. Degrade," read the notes to Dior designer John Galliano's show in which he sent a parade of teenaged models in diaphanous party dresses stalking down the catwalk to a pulsing rock beat.
"It's very young, transparent, light and quite sober," actress Marisa Berenson told Reuters Television after the show. "There were some wonderful mixtures of colors as he always does but I liked the lightness and the transparency."
Around 100 designers will be showing collections over the coming week, sending models, stylists, reporters and fashionistas racing around the French capital, seemingly oblivious to turbulence menacing the global economy.
As bank regulators and government leaders in Washington and Europe struggle to control a global financial crisis that has brought low some of the biggest names in banking and threatens the global economy, the industry was looking on the bright side.
"There are countries where there is growth," Sidney Toledano, head of Dior Couture, told Reuters. "We have a strategy of building up in emerging countries and reinforcement in mature markets," he said.
Outside the Dior show, jostling cameramen and celebrities striking artful poses in the autumn sunshine sounded a traditional fashion note as reporters scrapped it out for insights from the stars.
"It's very fluid, very Lolita, very sexy, very modern," actress Eva Green, a former Bond girl and face of Dior told journalists.
Economic crisis may cut into the conspicuous luxury on display just a stonesthrow away from where fashion-lover Marie Antoinette was beheaded in 1793 but, for the moment, the fashion world was maintaining a brave face.
"I think there will always be people looking for beautiful, luxurious things to brighten up their days and I know I look to fashion as a form of escape," burlesque artiste Dita von Teese told Reuters. "Maybe other people do too."
(Additional reporting by Mathilde Gardin; Editing by Louise Ireland)
A model presents a creation by designer John Galliano as part of French fashion house Dior Spring/Summer 2009 women's ready-to-wear fashion collection in Paris September 29, 2008.
Sunday, September 28, 2008
NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Substances called heterocyclic amines (HAs) found in cooked meat and fish don't appear to boost a woman's risk of developing breast cancer after menopause, Swedish researchers report.
However, low intake of these substances combined with high consumption of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are found in most types of vegetable oil, may indeed increase the likelihood that postmenopausal women will develop breast cancer, Dr. Emily Sonestedt, of Lund University, Malmo, and her colleagues found.
"The interaction in the present study between omega-6 PUFAs and HAs is not easily explained, and points toward the importance of examining the impact of food patterns rather than the influence of single dietary factors," Sonestedt and her team state in the October 1 issue of the International Journal of Cancer.
HAs form in meat or fish cooked at high temperatures, and have been tied to breast cancer in rats. Rats fed a fatty diet having a high omega-6 content developed even more tumors in response to dietary HAs than rats given a low fat diet.
Sonestedt's team examined whether HA consumption was related to breast cancer, and whether omega-6 PUFA intake played a role in this relationship, in women enrolled in the Malmo Diet and Cancer study.
The cohort included 11,699 women 50 and older. During follow-up, which averaged about 10 years, 430 of the women were diagnosed with breast cancer.
Women who consumed the most HAs were at no greater breast cancer risk than those who consumed the least, the researchers found. However, in women with low HA consumption, high omega-6 PUFA intake increased the likelihood of being diagnosed with breast cancer.
A previous analysis of data from this study had found high blood fats and high insulin levels -- both of which have been linked to breast cancer -- in women who consumed lots of low-fiber bread, Sonestedt and her team note. This could help explain the relationship in the current study, because women with low HA consumption ate more bread, cookies and cakes, the researchers say.
They conclude, based on their research, that a diet "very high in omega-6 PUFA may promote breast cancer development."
SOURCE: International Journal of Cancer, October 1, 2008.
Friday, September 26, 2008
LOS ANGELES, Sept 25, 2008 /PRNewswire via COMTEX/ -- Looking for a heart-healthy snack nut? Pistachios may be just what the cardiologist ordered.
According to a new study published in the September issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, researchers found that pistachios improve several markers for cardiovascular disease, including lowering harmful blood lipids and impacting enzymes involved in removing unhealthy cholesterol in the bloodstream.
The full study is available at http://www.pistachiohealth.com, an online resource for pistachio nutrition and health information.
"Our results clearly show two things: A small amount of pistachios that can be easily incorporated into most diets significantly improves biomarkers known to increase risk for heart disease, and they do so in a dose-dependent manner," says the lead researcher of the study, Sarah Gebauer, Ph.D., Postdoctoral Research Associate at the USDA Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, formerly of Pennsylvania State University. The study further affirms the FDA's first-ever qualified heart health claim, issued in July 2003, which states: "Scientific evidence suggests, but does not prove, that eating 1.5 ounces per day of most nuts, such as pistachios, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol may reduce the risk of heart disease." High total blood cholesterol, high LDL-cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol levels are major risk factors for coronary heart disease, the number one cause of death in the United States. One in every two American adults has high blood cholesterol levels, and one American dies from heart disease every 37 seconds.
The annual U.S. health-care costs to treat coronary heart disease are $450 billion, according to the American Heart Association. The good news: A healthy diet and lifestyle can help prevent the majority of these cases.
According to the American Heart Association, replacing saturated and trans fats with healthy mono- and polyunsaturated fats is a major dietary recommendation to improve heart health. Now, researchers at Pennsylvania State University conducted a randomized, crossover, controlled feeding study to test the effects of pistachios added to a heart healthy, moderate-fat diet on cardiovascular disease risk factors.
Twenty-eight men and women with moderately elevated LDL cholesterol began the study by following a diet designed to mimic the current average American intake, consisting of 35 percent total fat and 11 percent saturated fat for two weeks.
The researchers randomly assigned subjects to follow three test diets for four weeks each, with a two-week break between each diet.
All three diets were variations on the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Step 1 Diet, a cholesterol-lowering diet advocated by the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. The three diets included a Step 1 Diet control group without pistachios; a Step 1 Diet with one dose of pistachios a day at 10 percent of total calories (equal to 1.1 to 2.2 ounces of pistachios a day depending on calorie level); and a Step 1 Diet with two doses of pistachios a day at 20 percent of total calories (equal to 2.2 to 4.4 ounces of pistachios a day depending on calorie level).
Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and non-HDL cholesterol levels were significantly lower with the two pistachio diets compared to the control group.
The one dose pistachio diet lowered harmful LDL cholesterol by nine percent and the two dose pistachio diet lowered LDL by 12 percent. In addition, the researchers documented lower amounts of saturated fats in the blood and higher amounts of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats in both pistachio diets.
Compared to the control diet, HDL-cholesterol levels were higher in women following the two dose pistachio diet. HDL-cholesterol levels were not significantly different across the diets in men.
As part of the study protocol, participants were asked to eat pistachios both as a snack and as an ingredient in delicious and nutritious recipes. The "Pistachio Heart Health recipes" -- which include Pistachio Crunch Muffins, Pistachio Chicken Salad (below), Pistachio Granola, Pistachio Pesto and others -- are available at pistachiohealth.com.
About California-Grown Pistachios and PistachioHealth.Com A one-ounce serving of California pistachios, with 160 calories, provides more than 30 vitamins, minerals and phytonutrients. Pistachios are an excellent source of vitamin B6, copper and manganese; and a good source of protein, fiber, thiamin and phosphorus. Pistachios are one of the tree nuts included in the Food and Drug Administration's qualified health claim for the prevention of heart disease.
For more information, visit http://www.pistachiohealth.com, the leading online source of information on the health and nutrition benefits of California pistachios, research updates and educational materials, to both consumers and health professionals. The site, provided by Paramount Farms, California's largest pistachio grower and processor, serves as an industry-wide resource.
ADDENDUM Penn State Pistachio Heart Health Recipe Pistachio Chicken Salad 3 cups boneless, skinless chicken breast, chopped 1 cup red seedless grapes, sliced 2 teaspoons scallions, minced 2 tablespoons fat free mayonnaise 2 tablespoons fat free sour cream 2 tablespoons lemon juice 1/4 cup unsalted pistachios, chopped Combine ingredients in a large bowl and mix thoroughly to evenly distribute.
Serve atop your favorite whole grain bread or atop a bed of mixed greens. Makes 6 servings.
Nutrition Facts Per Serving: (1/2 cup = 94 g), 179 kcal, 10 g protein, 13 g CHO, 10.8 g total fat (1.5 g Sat, 5 g Mono, 3 g Poly), 10mg cholesterol SOURCE Paramount Farms; PistachioHealth.Com URL: http://www.pistachiohealth.com www.prnewswire.com Copyright (C) 2008 PR Newswire. All rights reserved -0- KEYWORD: California INDUSTRY KEYWORD: HEA
FOD SUBJECT CODE: SVYSource : http://www.cnbc.com
Thursday, September 25, 2008
By Michael Kahn
LONDON (Reuters) - Swimming in outdoor chlorinated pools appears to increase the odds a child will develop asthma, Belgian researchers said on Thursday.
Other studies have linked chlorine and asthma but the new findings published in the European Respiratory Journal cast doubt on the idea outdoor pools are safer than indoor ones where chlorine vapors remains trapped inside an enclosed space.
"The more you swim, the higher the risk," said Alfred Bernard, a toxicologist at Catholic University of Louvain in Brussels, who led the study. "What is new in this study is that we looked at outdoor pools for the first time."
Asthma, which affects more than 300 million people worldwide, is the most common pediatric chronic illness. Symptoms include wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing and chest tightness.
Bernard and colleagues showed that outdoor pools are just as or more risky than indoor ones because harmful vapors remain at the pool surface and do not drift away.
And because children tend to spend more time in pools they are more likely to swallow chlorinated water or ingest vapors containing chemicals that attack the cellular barriers protecting the lung from allergens, Bernard said.
"We see that the risk of the outdoor pool is equal and even higher than indoor pools because children tend to spend longer in outdoor pools and they are more chlorinated," he said.
The Belgian team tested 847 students around the age of 15 for allergies and asthma and asked their parents about exposure to asthma risks such as tobacco smoke, pets and pollution, and how much time the children had spent in chlorinated pools.
The researchers determined that the risk for the 50 percent of children predisposed to allergies and asthma was directly related to the amount of time spent in a pool.
Children with the highest pool attendance -- one hour per week for 10 years -- were five times more likely to be asthmatic than young people who had never swum in a pool, the study found.
"Young children are more exposed because they take more water into their airways and their lungs are still developing," Bernard said in a telephone interview.
(Reporting by Michael Kahn; Editing by Janet Lawrence)
By Myrrh Hector, About.com
About.com Health's Disease and Condition content is reviewed by V.K. Gadi, MD
What is Leukemia?
Leukemia is a group of cancers that develop when the DNA of an immature white blood cell (or less commonly, an immature red blood cell) is damaged in some way. This damage causes the red or white blood cell to grow and divide out of control, and the abnormal cell is then circulated along with healthy blood cells to the rest of the body.Normal Blood and Bone Marrow
Just like the liver or skin, the bone marrow is an organ. The bone marrow functions to produce blood cells. One part of the bone marrow produces red blood cells and another part produces lymphocytes (white blood cells that are part of the immune system). After they mature, the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets formed in the bone marrow are “picked up” by blood that flows through the bone marrow and out to the bloodstream. Blood cells of all types are suspended in plasma to make up the blood that flows throughout the body, and each cell has its own function. Red blood cells bring oxygen to the muscles and organs of the body. Platelets clump together (clot) to slow bleeding from cuts or bruises, and all types of white cells work to fight infections.
Types of Leukemia
Leukemia is divided into four groups according to the type of cell affected and its maturity.
The four main types of leukemia are:
- Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia. Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a rapidly progressing leukemia involving lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell.
- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. This type of leukemia also involves the lymphocytes, but progresses much more slowly than ALL.
- Acute Myelogenous Leukemia. Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) involves myeloid stem cells, and progresses quickly, requiring immediate treatment.
- Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia.This type of leukemia also involves myeloid stem cells, but like CLL, progresses more slowly than the acute forms of leukemia.
Risk Factors for Leukemia
Doctors and researchers are not sure what exactly causes leukemia, but they have identified a few factors that can increase the risk of developing leukemia. Having one or more of these risk factors does not mean that leukemia is inevitable; these are just some common factors that experts have noticed among patients diagnosed with leukemia. These include:
- Exposure to dangerous chemicals such as benzene or formaldehyde. Workers in the chemical industry may be exposed to these chemicals as part of their daily duties, which places them at increased risk for leukemia.
- Exposure to high levels of radiation. Exposure can come from radiation treatment for another cancer, or being near the explosion of a nuclear bomb or the site of a nuclear power plant leak or explosion. Lower levels of radiation, like those used in x-rays have not been shown to increase the risk of developing leukemia.
- Prior chemotherapy. Chemotherapy for other cancers, especially with a type of drug known as an alkylating agent, can increase the risk of developing leukemia.
- Having Downs Syndrome. The presence of this disorder (or less commonly other disorders) involving abnormalities of the chromosomes can increase the risk of leukemia.
- Having myelodysplastic syndrome. Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of diseases in which the bone marrow does not make enough blood cells, or makes blood cells that die quickly once they are in the bloodstream. MDS can be deadly in its own right, even if it does not progress into leukemia. Some consider MDS to be a kind of "pre-leukemia."
When the first symptoms of leukemia appear, the person affected may not realize that anything out of the ordinary is happening. The symptoms can be very vague, and it's easy to blame things like excessive stress or even the flu for some. Common symptoms of leukemia include:
- Headache. Leukemia can cause frequent headaches when large numbers of lymphocytes (white cells) collect in the brain and spinal cord.
- Weakness or tired. The fatigue and feelings of weakness are caused by a shortage of healthy red blood cells to supply the muscles with oxygen. This shortage of red blood cells is called anemia.
- Pain in the bones or joints. Joint and bone pain is caused by abnormal white blood cells collecting under a bone's surface or in a joint.
Leukemia also has some distinctive signs. While symptoms are subjective feelings like pain, tiredness, or weakness that can only be felt by the person experiencing them, signs are indicators of a health problem that can be observed or measured by an outside person such as a doctor or nurse, things like laboratory results, changes in weight, or paleness. Signs of leukemia include:
- Abdominal or lymph-node swelling. Large numbers of abnormal white blood cells can collect in the spleen, causing abdominal swelling, or in the lymph nodes causing them to swell. Swollen lymph nodes can be felt from the outside in the armpits and the neck, but lymph nodes that are located deeper in the body can only be found with an MRI or a CT scan. Abdominal swelling can also be felt externally, although the source of the swelling must be confirmed with a scan.
- Abnormal bruising or bleeding. This sign can present itself in different ways, including frequent nosebleeds, bleeding of the gums (especially after brushing the teeth), or small red spots on the skin (called petechiae) that result from bleeding in tiny blood vessels underneath the skin. This tendency to bruise or bleed easily is caused by a shortage of platelets, the blood cells that clump together to slow or stop bleeding in the body. A shortage of platelets in the blood is called thrombocytopenia.
- Frequent infections. Leukemia can make the body extremely vulnerable to infection, which may seem confusing because of all the discussion of increased numbers of white blood cells. Unfortunately, the abnormal white blood cells that are produced do not have the ability to effectively fight infection, and there are not usually enough healthy white blood cells to keep the immune system strong.
- Fevers. Fevers are one response of the immune system to infections, and are caused by the release of chemicals that tell the brain to raise the body's temperature. When a person has leukemia, these chemicals may be released excessively, causing frequent or persistent fevers (although some may be caused by infections).
- Weight loss. Weight loss in leukemia patients is caused by a variety of factors. The release of certain chemicals caused by leukemia, the toll on the body of frequent infections, and other factors work together to cause weight loss.
- Abnormal blood test results. A complete blood count (a blood test that examines all three types of blood cells) will measure the number of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. A person with leukemia may have much higher than normal levels of white cells, and possibly lowered counts of red blood cells and platelets.
Even if more than one of these signs or symptoms is present, it does not necessarily mean that a person has leukemia. All of these signs and symptoms can point to conditions other than leukemia. So it's important to talk to a doctor about any unusual or troublesome health issues. Leukemia isn't diagnosed based on the presence of one specific sign or symptom, but on a pattern of signs, symptoms, and test results that have been interpreted by a doctor who is qualified to make the diagnosis.
How Leukemia is Diagnosed
Leukemia can be diagnosed with a variety of tests, and understanding what each test is and what it looks for can make the tests a little less confusing. Remember to let friends and family be a source of support during the stressful time of testing and diagnosis, whether it is you who are the patient or your child. While some tests are more definitive than others, usually a doctor uses the results from a variety of exams, lab results, and scans to diagnose the specific type of leukemia, how advanced it is, and what type of treatment is recommended. Some important questions to ask before any test are:
- What will this test tell us?
- How is this test done?
- When will we get the results?
- What is the next step after we get the results of this test?
An exam is much like any doctor's appointment; the doctor will take a detailed medical history and thoroughly examine the whole body. In addition to the standard check of vital signs and breath sounds, the doctor will examine the lymph nodes in the neck and armpits to look for swelling caused by large amounts of white blood cells gathered in the lymph nodes. The doctor will also press on the abdomen (stomach area), noting any tenderness or swelling which would suggest that a large concentration of leukemic white blood cells is enlarging the spleen. A physical exam doesn't usually cause any any side effects, except for the normal worry about a possible leukemia diagnosis.Blood Tests
Blood tests are chemical tests done on a sample of blood in a laboratory. A sample of blood is taken from a patient's vein with a needle and collected in a vial, then sent to a laboratory to be analyzed. The most common blood test for leukemia is the complete blood count, or CBC. A CBC counts the number of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets in a blood sample. A sample of blood with high numbers of white blood cells and low levels of red blood cells or platelets can indicate leukemia, and abnormal liver and kidney function tests will tell the doctor if leukemia has affected those organs.One very important test that allows doctors to look specifically for blasts in a blood sample is flow cytometry. Flow cytometry also allows doctors to examine the physical characteristics of the blasts, allowing for more precise diagnosis. Blood draws should only be felt as a quick pinch, so don't be afraid to ask for someone else if the person drawing the sample is having trouble finding a vein.Bone Marrow Biopsy A biopsy takes a small sample of bone marrow tissue from the body. A bone marrow biopsy or aspiration is done in in the doctor's office. The doctor asks the patient to lie on his or her side and nurses clean the biopsy site with iodine or alcohol. After the site is cleaned, the biopsy site is numbed with a local anesthetic. The doctor uses either a very fine needle to draw out only bone marrow tissue, or a thicker needle to take a small sample of bone and bone marrow. The bone marrow sample is examined under a microscope to check for leukemia cells. This procedure should be relatively painless, as a local anesthetic such as lidocaine will be used, and the inside of the bone has no nerve endings. Patients may request light sedation and narcotics during the procedure. There may be some soreness after the procedure, so it's important to take it easy and follow the doctor's instructions for taking care of the biopsy site. Cytogenetics
Cytogenetics is a newer type of testing for leukemia, and it looks at the chromosomes in individual cells. Cytogenetic testing uses a sample taken from a blood draw or a bone marrow or lymph node biopsy. The sample's chromosomes are microscopically examined for abnormalities that indicate damage to the cells' DNA.Spinal Taps
A spinal tap involves a doctor taking a sample of cerebrospinal fluid. The samples is usually taken from the lower back (the lumbar area). Spinal taps take place in a procedure room in a doctor's office, and the patient is asked to lie on his or her side. The doctor then cleans the site of the puncture and injects a local anesthetic to numb the area. A special needle called a spinal needle is inserted into the space between vertebrae, and cerebrospinal fluid is drawn through the needle and into a collection tube for analysis. The fluid sample is then checked for leukemia cells and other abnormalities. A spinal tap can cause a severe headache that lasts a long time if the patient moves around too quickly after the procedure. There may also be some small discomfort at the site of the puncture, and as always, it's important to follow any instructions given by the doctor after the spinal tap.Scans and X-rays
MRIs (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), CT (Computerized Axial Tomography) scans, and x-rays are all technologies that use various machines to take pictures of bones, organs, and tissues inside the body. In the case of CT scans and MRIs, the technician has the patient lie down on a table that moves into a tube. CTs and MRIs build detailed 3-D pictures that can be examined by the doctor from any angle. In an x-ray, a patient is positioned so that two-dimensional pictures can be taken of the body. These images are interpreted by a radiologist and the images and a written report are sent back to the doctor. Scans and x-rays allow doctors to visually pinpoint problem areas within the body, and locate areas of infection.Treating Leukemia
Each type of leukemia has its own typical course of treatment, but there are only a few different types of treatment for leukemia. Explore the way each treatment works, how it is given, and what some of the most common side effects are.Chemotherapy
How Chemotherapy Works: The body naturally replaces normal cells only when cells die, but leukemic cells will divide constantly, which causes a build-up of cancer cells in the body. Chemotherapy drugs kill all rapidly dividing cells in the body, which is both the reason that chemotherapy works and the reason for most of its side effects. The ultimate goal of chemotherapy is to eliminate any visible signs of leukemia cells in the body; this elimination of any detectable signs of cancer is called remission.
How Chemotherapy is Given: Drugs can be given by mouth (orally) in the form of a pill, by injection into a muscle, or by IV directly into a vein. Instead of putting in a new IV for each chemotherapy session, many patients have a long-term IV catheter inserted, more commonly known as a port. Putting the port in is a minor surgical procedure, and it saves the person receiving treatment from a lot of extra needle sticks. Drawing blood for lab work can usually be done through the port as well.
The combination of drugs used will be different for each patient, but the process of chemotherapy is generally the same. Most leukemias are treated initially with inpatient chemotherapy. This is required because of the intensity of the chemotherapy and because hospital staff can administer blood products and antibiotics to inpatients as needed to keep blood counts higher and ward off infections. Chemotherapy is only halted in an inpatient setting if it is not working. Subsequent cycles of maintenance chemotherapy may be done in an outpatient setting after remission has been acheived.
Common Chemotherapy Side Effects: When people think of chemotherapy, they often think of guaranteed hair loss, endless nausea and vomiting, and lots of suffering and discomfort. However, some patients are able to get through chemotherapy without a lot of side effects, while others have a more difficult time. While side effects can be difficult, the benefits of timely and appropriate treatment will usually outweigh the discomfort, though it may not seem like it at the time! Chemotherapy drugs can cause constipation and diarrhea or nausea and vomiting. Too much of these side effects can cause dehydration or weight loss. In the hospital, weight and body functions are monitored closely and side effects treated as they appear, but it's always helpful to be open and honest about how you're feeling, especially when you are in the hospital.
Hair loss is one of the more well-known effects of chemotherapy, and can be one of the most difficult for male and female leukemia sufferers alike. Fortunately, wigs are much more natural looking than they used to be, and free or low-cost wigs can be obtained through wig banks at your cancer treatment center or in your community. Ask your healthcare team for information, resources, and assistance in dealing with treatment-related hair loss.Radiation Therapy
How it works: External radiation therapy uses highly complex equipment to deliver an appropriate dose of ionizing radiation to specific places in the body to damage the DNA and ultimately kill cancer cells. Normal cells that are near the site being treated may also be damaged by the radiation, but are usually able to recover and continue functioning. Radiation is specifically used in people with leukemia to target leukemic cells in spots that it's difficult to reach with chemotherapy, like the spaces around the brain and spinal cord.
How it's given: Radiation can be given in a variety of ways, but patients usually have fairly similar experiences. The first visit for radiation therapy is longer and the radiation therapy team uses this visit to specifically identify the site to be irradiated (given radiation). Molds and positioners may also be made during this first visit to help the patient hold still in a certain position. After extensive planning on where and how the radiation dose will be delivered, the patient is positioned on a table in the room with the equipment, and technicians operate the equipment from outside the room. Actual radiation therapy sessions usually last only a few minutes, with extra time if a meeting with the radiation oncologist (a doctor specializing in the treatment of cancer with radiation) is needed.Common Side Effects: Radiation therapy does have some side effects which may or may not be experienced during or after treatment. The most common side effects noticed are very tired feelings (fatigue) or changes in the skin, including dryness, burning, itching, or peeling. Creams or lotions may be prescribed to treat or lessen these effects, but it's important to follow the radiation therapy team's instructions on caring for the skin during and after treatment. Because leukemia patients often undergo whole brain irradiation, hair loss is a possibility as well. There may be other side effects specific to the site that's being treated, and these will be discussed with the person receiving treatment and their caregiver before treatment begins.
Stem Cell Transplantation
How Stem Cell Transplantation works: Stem cell transplantation can be done using either the patient's own cells during a disease remission or cells harvested from a healthy tissue-matched donor, with the latter being done much more often as studies have proved transplants using donor stem cells to be more effective. Transplants are done to replace cells lost to intensive chemotherapy or radiation, and are also valuable in patients receiving cells from a donor because the donor cells will recognize and attack the patient's cells, destroying leukemic cells and asserting themselves as the dominant (and healthy) cells in the patient's bone marrow. This graft versus leukemia effect eliminates leukemia cells that may "hide" from chemotherapy or radiation, and helps decrease the chances of relapse.
How Stem Cell Transplantation is done: The patient receives a course of intense chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Because the plan is to restore bone marrow cells and function with the transplant, higher doses than could normally be given are administered. Stem cells are harvested from the donor, either from the blood or directly from the bone marrow. The stem cells are then given to the leukemia patient through a catheter that is implanted into a vein (called a central line). Until the patient's bone marrow or blood has incorporated the donor cells, the stem cell recipient is very vulnerable to infections and must often stay in the hospital for an extended period of time.
Common side effects: Most of the side effects of the procedure come from the intense chemotherapy or radiation given before the transplant, and may be similar or somewhat more intense to the side effects normally associated with chemotherapy or radiation. The conditioning therapy and the transplant itself both leave the patient without an effective immune system for a short period of time, and this leaves the patient very vulnerable to infection and disease. Transplantation of donor stem cells can also cause an effect called "graft-versus-host." As explained before, this effect can be beneficial, but if it becomes extreme it can develop into a serious condition called graft-versus-host disease. Medications are given before and after the donor cells are infused to reduce the chances of developing the condition.Other Treatments
In addition to conventional chemotherapy and radiation, patients can also be treated with monoclonal antibodies attached to radioactive compounds. This type of treatment is called "radioimmunotherapy."
Leukemia patients may also choose to receive treatment as part of a clinical trial. All patients involved in clinical trials will be given at least the standard treatment, unless they are enrolled in a preliminary clinical trial. Before participating, patients will be told all possible risks.
Whatever treatment is chosen, patients and families should understand the potential risks and benefits. Treatment can't be done without the consent of a patient or their parent or guardian, so it's important to understand the recommended treatment before consent is given.
Many people who suffer from leukemia are able to go on and live full and healthy lives after treatment. They have found ways to integrate leukemia into their life's experiences, healthy methods of emotional expression, and the right follow-up treatment to keep their health the best it can be. Leukemia is not a death sentence, but it does have many challenges, each sometimes requiring creative problem-solving to overcome.
Physical: Depending on the type of leukemia, signs and symptoms may affect the quality of everyday life. It's difficult to cope with everyday routines when fatigue is overwhelming, or when constant fevers and infections force the person with leukemia to stay home from school or work. Nausea from chemotherapy may affect a patient's diet and ability to maintain good nutrition, causing weight loss. It's important to ask doctors and nurses how to deal with bothersome side effects like these. Being honest about symptoms can help doctors to address them, and they can do their best to help those with leukemia feel better each day.
Emotional: Being diagnosed with leukemia can arouse fears and worries about the future, and even after remission fears of relapse or anxieties about the need for future treatment can interfere with daily living. Some ways to deal with the emotions of leukemia can include: building a support system of family and friends, writing down thoughts and feelings in a journal, or seeking professional help from a counselor or therapist. Seeking professional counseling does not mean that a person is crazy or weak; it's a way to get an impartial perspective on feelings and events that are often overwhleming.
Financial: The financial burdens of leukemia treatments can last long after remission. Chemotherapy is expensive and treatment often interferes with a patient's ability to work, or the parents' ability to work if the patient is a child. If the leukemia patient has insurance, that may help cover some of the costs, but often the patient is left with high copays or fees to pay out of his own pocket. If this happens, it's important to talk with the billing department of the hospital or doctor's office about the difficulty or to seek out other sources of financial assistance.
Intellectual : A child who is diagnosed with leukemia is often unable to attend school for long periods of time due to illness or a weakened immune system, interrupting the normal course of that child's education. Also, chemotherapy can have cognitive effects on both children and adults, causing forgetfulness or difficulty learning. Children and adults need to be aware of these possible effects so they can develop strategies to overcome them and continue with education and everyday living.
Sexual : Chemotherapy can affect sexual desire and produce side effects that can inhibit adult patients' ability to be sexual. Certain treatments for leukemia can also affect a child's ability to go through puberty or conceive and bear children. It's important to ask doctors and nurses about the sexual and reproductive side effects of treatment for leukemia and what can be done to alleviate those effects before beginning a treatment.
"Understanding Blood Counts." 25 Oct 2004. Leukemia and Lymphoma Society. 20 Feb 2008.
"How Is Childhood Leukemia Diagnosed?" 19 Aug 2007. American Cancer Society. 20 Feb 2008.
"What You Need to Know About Leukemia." National Cancer Institute. 31 Mar 2003. National Institute of Health. 13 February 2008. 20 Feb 2008."Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation." 15 Feb 2008. Leukemia and Lymphoma Society. 2 Mar 2008.
"Radiation Therapy for Cancer: Questions and Answers." 25 Aug 2004. National Cancer Institute. 2 Mar 2008."Understanding Drug Therapy and Managing Side Effects." 20 Feb 2007. Leukemia and Lymphoma Society. 2 Mar 2008.
"Coping." 19 January 2006. Leukemia and Lymphoma Society. 2 March 2008.
Wednesday, September 24, 2008
By Will Dunham
WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Hormone replacement therapy, which raises breast cancer risk for some women, appears to reduce the risk for those with a certain genetic mutation linked to the disease, researchers said on Tuesday.
Dr. Steven Narod of Women's College Hospital in Toronto and colleagues looked at hormone replacement therapy or HRT in post-menopausal women with a BRCA1 gene mutation that greatly increases their chances of developing breast cancer.
Among 472 women from nine countries, those who used HRT were 42 percent less likely to develop breast cancer than those who did not, Narod's team reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.
Many women with a BRCA1 mutation choose to have their ovaries removed in order to reduce their risk of getting breast cancer, but the operation brings on menopause. HRT can relieve menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes and night sweats.
Earlier studies raised alarms about HRT because it raised the risk of breast cancer, stroke and other heart conditions.
But the impact on the risk of breast cancer in post-menopausal women with a BRCA1 gene mutation was unclear, Narod's team said.
Narod said the findings should reassure women with the mutation who want to have their ovaries removed before menopause to lower their risk of getting breast or ovarian cancer, but are worried about using HRT to relieve the symptoms that will follow.
"Certainly in my practice in Toronto at Women's College Hospital, I have no hesitance whatsoever in prescribing hormone replacement therapy to young women who have a BRCA1 mutation and surgical menopause," Narod said in a telephone interview.
"We want to be able to get the benefit of the ovariectomy in terms of preventing cancer but maintain the best quality of life. And we think that the best way to maintain the quality of life is to use hormone replacement therapy," Narod added.
Hormone replacement therapy can involve estrogen alone or estrogen along with progesterone or progestin, a synthetic hormone with effects like those of progesterone.
Narod found no difference in risk reduction between estrogen-only or estrogen-progesterone hormone therapies.
Not everyone was convinced. Two experts who wrote a commentary in the same journal accompanying the study said the findings "provide some evidence for safety but are insufficient to reliably inform routine clinical practice."
"As a result, continued caution in prescribing hormone therapy to women with BRCA1 mutations who are at high risk for breast cancers remains prudent," Dr. Rowan Chlebowski of University of California Los Angeles and Ross Prentice of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle wrote.
(Editing by Maggie Fox and Cynthia Osterman)
HONG KONG (Reuters) - Isoflavone, a chemical found in soybeans, chickpeas, legumes and clovers, can improve artery function in stroke patients, a study in Hong Kong has found.
Published online in the European Heart Journal, it is the first investigation into the effects of isoflavone supplement on the brachial artery, which is the main artery in the arm.
Researchers found that after 12 weeks of isoflavone supplement, at a dose of 80 milligrams a day, there was improved blood flow in that artery, which is especially important in patients who have suffered ischaemic stroke -- which is caused by blood clots or other obstructions.
"These findings may have important implications for the use of isoflavone for secondary prevention in patients with cardiovascular disease, on top of conventional treatments," the researchers wrote.
The trial involved 50 patients taking the isoflavone supplement, and 52 on placebos or substances with no therapeutic effect.
The scientists used ultrasound to measure the blood flow in the patients' brachial arteries one minute after removing a tourniquet on their forearms.
Eighty percent of the patients began the experiment with an impaired blood flow, but after 12 weeks, there was an improvement in the arteries of the isoflavone-treated patients compared with those on placebos.
No improvement from isoflavone treatment was found in diabetic patients compared with non-diabetic patients, but there was an improvement of 1 percent in patients who were current smokers or who had smoked in the past compared with non-smokers.
However, the researchers said it was too early to make clinical recommendations about the use of isoflavone supplements for stroke patients.
"Our study implied that diets with higher isoflavone contents might be beneficial in reducing cardiovascular risk in ischaemic stroke patients," said Tse Hung-fat, cardiology professor at the University of Hong Kong in a statement.
"At this juncture, regular isoflavone supplement might not be advocated since the benefits and side effects of long-term supplementation are still unknown."
"A balanced diet is still the top priority in promoting health. Diets with higher soy content might be beneficial due to the isoflavone contents. These food products also, in general, have higher contents of polyunsaturated fats, fiber, vitamins and less saturated fat," Tse said.
(Reporting by Tan Ee Lyn; Editing by Sanjeev Miglani)
Tuesday, September 23, 2008
LONDON (Reuters) - Physical exertion may help pregnant women stop smoking, researchers said on Tuesday, after two small studies showed a quarter of women who exercised regularly while expecting a baby quit smoking.
The British scientists said the quitting rate was about the same as for people who use nicotine replacement.
"Our findings suggest that a physical activity intervention is feasible and acceptable as an aid to smoking cessation during pregnancy," Michael Ussher and colleagues from St. George's University of London, wrote in the journal BMC Health.
Nicotine -- one of the most addictive substances known -- can lead to lower birth weight, higher infant mortality and is linked to learning difficulties and health problems in childhood.
An estimated 17 percent of British women and 20 percent of women in the United States say they smoke during pregnancy, the researchers said.
Nicotine patches are one way to help smokers give up, but there are worries they may harm the fetus, leaving exercise as a healthy alternative for pregnant women, the researchers said.
The two pilot studies included women over 18 who smoked at least one cigarette a day and were 12 to 20 weeks into their pregnancy.
In one trial, women exercised under supervision once a week for six weeks while in the other they worked out twice a week for the same length of time and then once weekly for three weeks. All received counseling and help to stop smoking.
The women exercised at a moderate pace and the main activity was walking, the researchers said. A quarter of the 32 women gave up smoking before giving birth, the studies found.
The researchers, who are now conducting a larger trial of more than 850 women, did not say why exercise appears to make a difference but previous research has linked physical activity to reduced cravings during pregnancy.
"Regular exercise is ideal for any pregnant women who smoke as it's obviously safe and the benefits are enormous," Ussher said in a statement.
(Reporting by Michael Kahn; Editing by Louise Ireland)
NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Exposure to secondhand smoke is an important risk factor for peripheral arterial disease, which affects arteries in the legs and may lead to amputation if severe, according to a study among Chinese women.
As shown in prior studies, passive smoking was also linked to heart disease and stroke.
In China, smoking is far more common among men than among women, lead author Dr. Yao He of the Chinese PLA General Hospital in Beijing and colleagues report in the journal Circulation.
Their study involved 1,209 women age 60 and older who had never smoked. Of these women 477 reported secondhand smoke exposure at home or in the workplace for at least 2 years during the previous decade.
The researchers found that secondhand smoke increased the risk of peripheral arterial disease by 67 percent and the risk of heart disease and stroke by 69 and 56 percent, respectively.
As the amount and duration of secondhand smoke exposure increased, so did the risks of these problems, He and colleagues found.
Pointing out that their study provides the first evidence of an association between secondhand smoke and peripheral arterial disease, as well as further validation of the link with heart disease and stroke, He's group calls for urgent public health measures to prevent this health hazard.
SOURCE: Circulation, online September 22, 2008.
By Sarah Mower
This year, Britain officially had the dullest summer recorded since 1929. With August rainfall over 40 percent higher than average, it was about as miserable as anyone can remember, except possibly for the makers of raincoats, like Burberry. You could see how that big washout might have seeped into Christopher Bailey's consciousness when the first girl advancing along the runway looked from a distance like a survivor of Bestival, the Isle of Wight's recent storm-drenched music event. There she was, trudging home with apparently sodden flares, a rain-soaked cape, and a patchwork crusher hat jammed firmly down on her forehead.
Bailey called the collection "Garden Girls," and said he'd been inspired by his own garden in Yorkshire, and a Thames & Hudson book on eccentric Brits called Garden People—never types to be daunted by a bit of mud. To turn that thought into a collection, Bailey worked tints of ochers, browns, and mossy greens into a slew of fabric, skinny cardigans, boyfriend pantsuits, and leather that looked as if it had all been treated to a good downpour.
Among the dip-dyed and crinkled effects, there were some great items. Anyone who jumped on Burberry's flares last season will love this Spring's extreme version: the shrink-to-the-leg cheesecloth trouser that made a clever compromise between sheer leggings and a pant. Fans of Bailey's super-deluxe trenches—a feature of his last three shows—will also be more than happy with the update: dull steel-gray python, sometimes richly embellished with paillettes running up from the hem. Still, although Bailey worked up to brighter gold brocades and gunmetal lamé in the closing passages, the show could have benefited from a sunnier outlook for next summer, and a stricter edit.
Taken From : http://www.style.com, AP_Photo by LUCA BRUNO, wwd
Monday, September 22, 2008
LONDON (Reuters) - Miners in the southern African kingdom of Lesotho have found one of the world's largest diamonds, a near-flawless white gem weighing nearly 500 carats, mining group Gem Diamonds said on Sunday.
The diamond was discovered in the Letseng Mine on September 8, the company said in a statement. It has been analyzed by experts in Antwerp and found to weigh 478 carats, with very few inclusions and of outstanding color and clarity.
"It has the potential to yield one of the largest flawless D color round polished diamonds in history," the company said.
Letseng is one of the most productive mines in history -- four of the world's 20 largest rough diamonds have been found at the mine, including the three largest found this century.
Before it is cut into gems it is hard to value the diamond, but a spokesman for Gem Diamonds said a similar weight stone with lesser-quality color and clarity had recently sold for $12 million (around 5.5 million pounds).
"Preliminary examination of this remarkable diamond indicates that it will yield a record breaking polished stone of the very best color and clarity," Clifford Elphick, the chief executive of Gem Diamonds, said in a statement.
The minister for natural resources in Lesotho, an impoverished mountain kingdom in eastern South Africa, praised the productivity of the mine, one of the highest in the world at more than 3,000 meters (10,000 feet).
"Once again Letseng has proved its ability to produce extraordinary diamonds and continues to place Lesotho at the forefront of diamond producing countries," Monyane Moleleki said in a statement.
Letseng is 70 percent owned by Gem Diamonds and 30 percent owned by the government of Lesotho.
The world's largest diamond is the Cullinan, discovered in South Africa in 1905. It weighed more than 3,100 carats before it was cut into more than one hundred separate gems, many of which are part of the British crown jewels.
(Reporting by Luke Baker; Editing by Mariam Karouny)
Sunday, September 21, 2008
Complete Makeup Application
Makeup is an art, which has the power to turn an ordinary face into an extremely beautiful one and vice versa. So it is all about the proper way of applying the makeup, which can make the difference. According to the requirements of the occasion, season and skin type the range of makeup application varies. But in general the steps of makeup are quite similar.
Here is step-by-step guide to complete makeup application for general occasions. These steps could be helpful to you with the 'guidelines about how to apply the makeup ' properly.
Most of the time all your efforts to look beautiful could be destroyed by the blemished skin. Therefore in such cases using a 'Skin Care Kit ' that includes the Cleanser, Toner, Moisturizer and a Masque, is recommended. It is created for your skin type and will help you attain and maintain that beautiful healthy glow on your skin.
Five Steps of applying Makeup
There are 5 main steps for applying the complete makeup. In order to get the best possible results you should apply your Makeup only after you have used the Cleanser, Toner and Moisturizer. Remember that the Masque should be used at least once in a week for deep cleaning.
Step 1: Foundation
- After Cleansing, Toning and Moisturizing your face you should apply a little amount of foundation to the tip of your index finger.
- Then dot it on your forehead, nose, cheeks and chin and blend in an upward and outward motion.
- Make sure that you apply the foundation over your eyelids too and blend without leaving a line.
- After that glance in the mirror to ensure there is no line.
- You can also use a concealer to cover the imperfections of your face such as the blemishes and other dark spots.
Step 2: Translucent Powder
- In order to get that smooth finish you should use a powder brush to apply the translucent powder.
- Make sure that you apply it in a downward motion.
- The translucent powder helps eye makeup and blush to go on smoother and blend better.
- The translucent powder keeps your face looking fresh.
- The translucent powder helps your Makeup last longer.
Step 3: Eye Makeup
- You should starting at the lash line and apply the Base Color first.
- Then you should apply your crease color in the crease area.
- Then you should apply the highlight color in the highlight color area that is below the brow bone.
- Finally you should blend the colors with a cotton ball or your fingertip in order to remove any obvious line.
- In case you find that the colors are too bright then tone them down with a little translucent powder.
- Then only you should apply the Mascara.
Step 4: Blush
- You should apply the blush in such a way that it goes on the apples of your cheeks to radiate when you smile.
- The right way to apply the blush is so that it goes no closer to your nose, but directly beneath the iris of your eye, below nostril-level and into your temple hairline.
- For applying the blush a good Blush Brush that is tapered for precise placement is a must.
Step 5: Lipsticks
- Firstly you should define the outline of your lips with a professional lip brush or lip liner pencil.
- Make sure that its color closely matches the color of your lipstick.
- Then apply your lipstick and blend the liner with a lip brush.
- To apply properly you should start from the center working outwards.
Taken From : http://www.womanjunction.com
Why We Think Skin Tone is the Most Important Part of Your Skincare Routine
By Julyne Derrick, About.com
The key to a flawless face is an even skin tone. Even the most beautiful women in the world need a bit of help now and then (check out Heidi Klum sans makeup, pictured right).
Makeup expert Trish McEvoy taught me the key to a flawless face is not perfect eye makeup application or the right shade of lipstick. It's evening out your skin tone.
Getting your skin tone right, according to McEvoy, is more important than any other part of your makeup routine. The trick is make it appear as if you aren't wearing any makeup at all. Here are a few steps to even-ing out your skin tone.
Rule #1: Exfoliate
Chances are if you don't exfoliate daily or weekly, your skin is covered in dead skin cells that are mucking up the surface of your skin and causing your skin to not only look dull, but older as well. Without proper exfoliation, foundation won't smooth over your skin cleanly and moisturizer won't properly soak in.
Exfoliate with face scrubs, microdermabrasion, chemical peels, beta alpha hydroxy pads or any Vitamin A product like Retin-A.
Rule #2: Prep the Face
Foundations and tinted moisturizers glide over a moisturized, plumped face so much better than a dry one. Plump up skin with a primer with SPF (primers have been The New Thing now for more than a oouple years). If you don't have a primer, moisturizers with SPF will do. Make sure the SPF is at least 15.
Rule #3: Even Out Skin Tone
The next step is to apply foundation or tinted moisturizer (tinted moisturizer tends to be more sheer). Make sure the foundation or TM blends perfectly into skin. If it's too light or too dark it will be noticeable. Apply only on the areas that need it most: Usually along the nose and on the cheeks and chin.
Rule #4: Cover Up Under-Eye Circles, Blemishes and Red Spots
A few dots of a creamy concealer under the eyes and on any blemishes helps remove the "veiny" or "bluish" appearance under the eyes many women have. Remember to pat, don't rub, concealer in.
Rule #5: Prep the Lids
Even if you aren't going to be applying eyeshadow, you'll want to apply a lid base to lids to even out skin there. Most people's lids have blue veins. Concealing them with a base or primer created for the lids helps even out your overall skin tone.
Rule #6: Bring Back Some Color
Once skin tone is evened out, you'll notice your skin lacks color. Bring it back in with bronzer, a creamy blush or both. Apply bronzing powder with a big fluffy brush on all the spots the sun naturally hits: Forehead, cheeks and nose. Follow with a creamy blush on the apple of your cheeks. (Cream blushes create a "dewy" complexion better than powder blushes, and help plump up skin).
Rule #7: Set the Face
Your last step to a perfect complexion is setting the face with a powder. This is a step I often avoid because I love how dewy my complexion is without powder. Plus, at this point, I'm lazy. But many makeup artists insist on this step.
Now that your face is "on" you'll notice you don't even have to apply much eye makeup to look fresh and spectacular. Even just a bit of mascara and a hint of gloss is enough for most women to look fantastic.
Tired of always being told you have to do more and spend more too look younger? How would you like to do less and spend less yet look younger? Well now it's possible. All you have to do is avoid these 12 most common beauty mistakes made by women over forty and you will look younger, healthier, and more attractive.
1. Don’t use foundation that's lighter then your skin color. You will look pale, washed out and unhealthy.
2. Don't use powder foundation it tends to collect in creases and make wrinkles more prominent.
3. Don't use frosted eye shadow, because its frosted particles settle into lid lines accentuating wrinkles.
4. Don't use iridescent eye shadow it attracts light and draws attention to lines.
5. Don't use brown eye shadows they tend to age the face and create a tired appearance.
6. Don't use black eyeliner it is to harsh and will emphasize any fine lines around the eyes.
7. Don't use overly light under eye concealer this will illuminate any imperfections and lines in the under eye area.
8. Don't over pluck your eyebrows; a very fine brow gives your face an aged look.
9. Don't use too pale, too dark, or too bright color cosmetics. Anything bold, unnatural, and overpowering on the face makes it appear older and unattractive.
10. Don't apply your blusher too high or too low. If you want to create a natural, younger lift look to your face never apply blush any lower than the bottom of your nose or any higher up than the outside corner of the eye.
11. Don't apply your makeup too heavy because as the skin ages it starts to lose its firmness. Heavily applied makeup tends to slide into and accentuate lines and furrows.
12. Don't over exaggerate your lip line it will look phony even clown like.
This article is courtesy of Eileen Hammel, she is a Nationally & Internationally Recognized Image, Style and Beauty Expert Ms.Hammel is President of Smarter Image and Smart Skin Care.
Source : http://www.smart-mums.com.au
Saturday, September 20, 2008
(China Daily) It’s now easier to adapt and mimic the style of your favourite celebrity. The key is to never ever become a carbon copy of the personality you like - instead steal their style! Find out what they are wearing and how you can get the look.